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# Virtual Chemistry Experiments

## Gas Laws

Topic Concepts Experiment
Pressure The physical meaning of pressure and the operation of a U-tube manometer are explained. Three exercises are provided: reading a manometer, measuring pressure when the manometer contains a liquid other than water, compensating for the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid in the manometer.
Boyle's Law Boyle's experiments involving pressure and volume are discussed. Students repeat Boyle's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas.
Boyle's Law Calculations The use of Boyle's law to predict how the volume of a gas will change with a change in pressure is explained. A sample of gas is allowed to expand. Students are asked to predict the change in pressure for the gas, and this prediction is tested.
Charles's Law Charles's and Gay-Lussac's experiments involving temperature and volume are discussed. The significance of absolute zero is also discussed. Students repeat Charles's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas and to determine absolute zero.
Avogadro's Law Various characterizations of a gas are defined, including density, molar concentration, and molar volume. The density, molar concentration, and molar volume of various gases are measured.
Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant The various gas laws (e.g., Boyle's and Charles's laws) are employed to formulate a general gas law, the ideal gas law. The validity of the ideal gas law is tested by measuring the pressure of a gas at various molar concentrations. The value of the gas constant is determined graphically.
Dalton's Law The application of the ideal gas law to gas mixtures is explained, and the partial pressure of a gas is defined. Two gases are allowed to mix, and students are asked to predict the final pressure of the gas mixture.