||The stopped-flow technique and its use in studying chemical reactions is described. The speed or rate of a reaction is discussed.
||Concentration vs time plots are recorded for reactants and product in a chemical reaction. Characteristic features for rates of change in the concentrations of reactants and product are explored.
|Rate of Reaction
||The relationships between the relative rates of change in concentration of reactants and products is discussed. The general expression for the rate of reaction is presented.
||The stoichiometric coefficients for a chemical equation are determined by comparing the slopes of concentration-time plots for the reactants and products.
|Differential Rate Laws
||Differential rate laws for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions are described and explained.
||The differential rate law and the rate constant are determined for a reaction by examining how the rate of reaction varies with the reactant concentration.
|Integrated Rate Laws
||Integrated rate laws for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions are described and explained.
||The rate law and the rate constant are determined for a reaction by preparing characteristic kinetics plots from concentration-time data.
||The half-life of a reaction is defined and explained.
||The half-life is measured for various initial concentrations for zero-, first-, and second-order reactions. The data is analyzed graphically to determine the relationship between the half-life and reactant concentration for each order reaction and to determine the rate constant for each reaction.
|Method of Initial Rates
||The determination of a rate law by the Method of Initial Rates is described.
||The rate law and rate constant for a reaction is determined using the Method of Initial Rates.
||The determination of a rate law by the Isolation Method is described.
||The rate law and rate constant for a reaction is determined using the Isolation Method.
|Kinetics of the Bromate-Bromide Ion Reaction
||The reaction between bromate ion and bromide ion in acidic aqueous solution is described.
||The rate law and rate constant for the bromate-bromide ion reaction is determined. A selection of solutions and a stopped-flow apparatus are available. Students must devise their own experimental strategy for determining the rate law and the rate constant.