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||The physical meaning of pressure and the operation of a U-tube manometer are explained.
||Three exercises are provided: reading a manometer, measuring pressure when the manometer contains a liquid other than water, compensating for the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid in the manometer.
||Boyle's experiments involving pressure and volume are discussed.
||Students repeat Boyle's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas.
|Boyle's Law Calculations
||The use of Boyle's law to predict how the volume of a gas will change with a change in pressure is explained.
||A sample of gas is allowed to expand. Students are asked to predict the change in pressure for the gas, and this prediction is tested.
||Charles's and Gay-Lussac's experiments involving temperature and volume are discussed. The significance of absolute zero is also discussed.
||Students repeat Charles's historical experiments and use the experimental data to formulate the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas and to determine absolute zero.
||Various characterizations of a gas are defined, including density, molar concentration, and molar volume.
||The density, molar concentration, and molar volume of various gases are measured.
|Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant
||The various gas laws (e.g., Boyle's and Charles's laws) are employed to formulate a general gas law, the ideal gas law.
||The validity of the ideal gas law is tested by measuring the pressure of a gas at various molar concentrations. The value of the gas constant is determined graphically.
||The application of the ideal gas law to gas mixtures is explained, and the partial pressure of a gas is defined.
||Two gases are allowed to mix, and students are asked to predict the final pressure of the gas mixture.