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Virtual Chemistry Experiments

Structures of Solids

Topic Concepts Experiment
Network Solids The distinctions between ionic, molecular, metallic, and network solids are discussed. Structures are shown for diamond, graphite, buckminsterfullerene, and cristobalite (silica) and questions are asked about the chemical bonding in these solids. Electron density plots for CO2 and SiO2 are used to illustrate differences in chemical bonding that produce the radically different physical properties of these compounds.
Closest-Packed Structures The efficient packing of hard spheres is described. A sequence of interactive images are employed to illustrate the packing process for hexagonal closest-packed and cubic closest-packed structures.  
Cubic Closest-Packed Structure The properties and unit cell of the cubic closest-packed structure are described. An animation is provided and the viewer is asked to determine the number of atoms within the face-centered cubic unit cell.
Hexagonal Closest-Packed Structure The properties and unit cell of the hexagonal closest-packed structure are described. An animation is provided and the viewer is asked to determine the number of atoms within the hexagonal unit cell.
Holes in Closest-Packed Structures The existence and properties of holes in closest-packed structures are discussed.  
Trigonal Hole The geometry of a trigonal hole is described. A virtual reality representation of three atoms forming a trigonal hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.
Tetrahedral Hole The geometry of a tetrahedral hole is described. A virtual reality representation of four atoms forming a tetrahedral hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.
Octahedral Hole The geometry of an octahedral hole is described. A virtual reality representation of six atoms forming an octahedral hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.
Cubic Hole The geometry of a cubic hole is described. A virtual reality representation of eight atoms forming a cubic hole is presented, and the viewer is asked to calculate the rhole/r ratio.
Holes in the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure   An interactive virtual reality representation of a cubic closest-packed structure is presented, and the viewer is asked to determine types of holes present in the structure and the number of each type in the unit cell.
Holes in the Hexagonal Closest-Packed Structure   An interactive virtual reality representation of a hexagonal closest-packed structure is presented, and the viewer is asked to determine types of holes present in the structure and the number of each type in the unit cell.
Structure of Ionic Solids The factors governing the structure of ionic solids composed of monatomic ions are discussed.  


Ionic Solids

Topic Concepts Experiment
Structure of Ionic Solids The factors governing the structure of ionic solids composed of monatomic ions are discussed.  
Structure of Wurtzite The crystal structure of Wurtzite is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Wurtzite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Zinc Blende The crystal structure of Zinc Blende is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Zinc Blende is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Rutile The crystal structure of Rutile is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Rutile is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Sodium Chloride The crystal structure of sodium chloride is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of sodium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Cesium Chloride The crystal structure of cesium chloride is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of cesium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Fluorite The crystal structure of Fluorite is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Fluorite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.


Unit Cells

Topic Concepts Experiment
Simple Cubic The geometry of the simple cubic unit cell is described. A virtual reality depiction of the simple cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell.
Body-Centered Cubic The geometry of the body-centered cubic unit cell is described. A virtual reality depiction of the body-centered cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell.
Face-Centered Cubic The geometry of the face-centered cubic unit cell is described. A virtual reality depiction of the face-centered cubic unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell.
Hexagonal Closest-Packed Structure The geometry of the unit cell of the hexagonal closest-packed structure is described. A virtual reality depiction of the hcp unit cell allows the structure of the solid to be visualized. An animation illustrates the number of atoms contained in the unit cell.
Structure of Wurtzite The crystal structure of Wurtzite is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Wurtzite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Zinc Blende The crystal structure of Zinc Blende is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Zinc Blende is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Rutile The crystal structure of Rutile is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Rutile is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Sodium Chloride The crystal structure of sodium chloride is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of sodium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Cesium Chloride The crystal structure of cesium chloride is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of cesium chloride is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.
Structure of Fluorite The crystal structure of Fluorite is described. A virtual reality representation of the crystal structure of Fluorite is presented, and the viewer is asked to examine various properties of the structure.

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