Chemistry Applets

Virtual Chemistry Experiments employ Chemistry Applets to simulate various experiments, apparatus, and chemical processes. The display and operation of an applet can be controlled by the user through the PARAM options in the APPLET tag and through JavaScript commands.

Note that all <APPLET> tags must include the following tag:
<param name="permissions" value="sandbox">

Conditions of Use

Documentation is available for all applets and for supplemental classes. The Physlets.jar archive is part of Physlets.

Java Security Settings:
      This web page employs Java, which requires specific security settings for correct operation.
      If the applets on this page do not run correctly, consult the Virtual Chemistry Experiments FAQ
      or the Physlet Physics web site for establishing the correct security settings.




balance.Balance.class

Archive balance.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a top-loading balance. The balance is a Data Listener (Data Connections) which uses the y-value of a data pair as the mass.




bulb.Bulb.class

Archive bulb.jar
Required Archives none
Description This applet depicts a glass bulb with a stopcock. The stopcock may be open or closed, and the color of the gas in the bulb may be specified. The bulb may also contain a liquid in addition to the gas.




bulbs.Bulbs.class

Archive bulbs.jar
Required Archives none
Description This applet depicts a pair of glass bulbs connected by a tube bearing a stopcock. The stopcock may be open or closed, and the color of the gas in either bulb or in both bulbs may be specified.




calorimeter.Calorimeter.class

Archive calorimeter.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet simulates one of three different calorimeters: a conventional calorimeter, a bomb calorimeter, and a thermos-style calorimeter. A simple animation is provided to illustrate the initiation of the chemical reaction. The user specifies the heat change for the reaction and characterizes the rate at which heat is released. The applet is a Data Source (Data Connections) providing time (t) and temperature (T) data.




chemEquilibria.ChemEquilibria.class

Archive chemEquilibria.jar
Required Archives equilibria.jar
Description This applet provides a web-interface to the equilibria package, which provides support for solving arbitrary equilibrium problems. There is no display for this applet. For more information see the home pages for the ChemEquilibria Applet and the Equilibria package.




electronDensity.ElectronDensity.class

Archive electronDensity.jar
Required Archives waveFunction.jar, Physlets.jar
Description This applet displays an electron density plot. The user may select a hydrogenic orbital (including imaginary orbitals) or may designate hybrid orbitals. Gaussian-type wave functions may also be defined. The display may be rotated to display an arbitrary plane containing the origin, and axes may be displayed for the xy, xz, or yz planes. (Interpolation is employed with the image displayed at the right. Higher resolution, at the expense of slower performance, can be achieved by disabling the interpolation option.)




manometer.Manometer.class

Archive manometer.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a manometer of the U-tube design. The user may specify the color and density of the trapped liquid. A sample of gas may be trapped in the closed end of the U-tube. The applet is both a Data Listener and a Data Source (Data Connections). As a Data Listener the applet accepts pressure, temperature, and moles for the y value for ID 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The x value is never used. As a Data Source the applet provides pressure (P) and moles of trapped gas (n). The user may drag the liquid level to manually change the system pressure; this feature may be disabled.




piston.Piston.class

Archive piston.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a piston. A scale may be displayed along side the piston to permit measurement of the piston volume. The applet is both a Data Listener and a Data Source (Data Connections). As a Data Listener the applet accepts volume (mL) for the x value. As a Data Source the applet also provides the volume (V), which can be set in response to the user dragging the piston barrier.




piston3.Piston3.class

Archive piston3.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a piston that contains three internal regions, each of which may have a different color. A scale may be displayed along side the piston to permit measurement of the piston volume. The applet is both a Data Listener and a Data Source (Data Connections). As a Data Listener the applet accepts the total volume (mL) for the x value when a single datum is supplied. When an array of data is supplied, x elements 0 through 3 contain the total volume and volumes of regions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. As a Data Source the applet also provides the total volume (V), which can be set in response to the user dragging the piston barrier, and volumes for regions 1, 2, and 3 (V1, V2, and V3).




spectrophotometer.Spectrophotometer.class

Archive spectrophotometer.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts the operation of a spectrophotometer. The photons are represented by small circles travelling across the screen and passing through a sample cell. While passing through the cell there is a chance, depending upon the analyte concentration and molar absorptivity, that the photon will be absorbed by the sample. Photons reaching the detector are counted. The applet is a Data Source that provides the following simulation properties: time (t), total number of photons emitted by the source (s), total number of photons detected (d), photon intensity (I), transmittance (T), and absorbance (A).




stoppedFlow.StoppedFlow.class

Archive stoppedFlow.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a stopped flow device and provides mathematical support for reaction dynamics. Each syringe contains a solution whose composition can be specified; when mixed the reaction is initiated. The user can specify the rate law, including arbitrary rate laws of the form r = k [A]a [B]b [C]c .... The applet is a Data Source (Data Connections) that provides the time (t), absorbance (A), rate of change in the absorbance (dA), and concentrations and rates of change in concentrations for eight species (C0, dC0, C1, dC1, etc.) The applet can also be configured to perform only calculations without displaying an animation.




thermometer.Thermometer.class

Archive thermometer.jar
Required Archives Physlets.jar
Description This applet depicts a thermometer and serves as both a Data Listener and a Data Source (Data Connections). As a Data Listener, the applet receives the temperature (as the dependent variable) and updates the thermometer display. As a Data Source the applet provides the temperature (T) to other applets. The user may drag the liquid level to manually change the temperature; this feature may be disabled. The thermometer may be oriented vertically or horizontally.




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